Book Review: The Jungle

Book Review: The Jungle by Upton Sinclair

Jurgis Rudkos is a Lithuanian immigrant who has come to America with his fiancee Ona and their families to seek the good jobs advertised in his poverty-stricken homeland.  It’s tricky for people who don’t know English or the local customs to get around, but finally they make it to the Packingtown district of Chicago, and a countryman who can give them advice.  Soon, the adults of the family have jobs in the slaughterhouses and related businesses, and they move into a house together.  Times are tough, but if everyone works hard and saves their money, things will surely get better.

The Jungle

But the naive immigrants have no idea just how much worse things can get in a world where the law of the jungle prevails, and each is pitted against each.

This (in)famous novel was originally published as a serial in The Appeal to Reason and One-Hoss Philosophy, Socialist publications.  In order to get it published as a book by a major publishing house, Mr. Sinclair had to tone the story down quite a bit, and it was still considered immensely shocking.  The version I read is called “uncensored” but would more rightly be called “unexpurgated”, with the text as it was written for the serial.

An introduction by Kathleen De Grave explains what was cut for the 1906 version, and how that affects the tone of the story.  For example, it’s left in that the slaughterhouse workers spent their lunch time in saloons, but left out is the explanation that there were no other places to get food in walking distance of the plants.  If you wanted to have a warm place to eat, you must buy alcohol.

In either version, this is a depressing story.  The odds are stacked against Jurgis and his family from the very beginning, with grifters ready to swindle the immigrants any way they can, from phony officials asking for fees that don’t exist to “pesticides” that are completely inert.   One of the central heartbreaking examples is the house the immigrants “rent to buy.”  It is not at all as advertised, there are fees in the lease contract that are not disclosed until well after the family has settled in, and miss even one payment, and you are out in the street.

Which would be fine if everyone stayed in work.  But what if you get sick or injured and they fire you for missing work?  What if your boss fires you because he’s found someone who will do the job for two cents less an hour?  What if the entire factory just closes down for a month or three?  Even the relatively nice employers have no compunctions about getting rid of workers who become inconvenient.

And while the slaughterhouse scenes are as horrific as advertised, don’t think the vegetarians are going to get away unscathed.  Fruits and vegetables and milk are all adulterated, the clothing sold in the stores the poor have access to is thin shoddy (and overpriced at that!) and you can drown in the streets during the rainy season.

The misfortunes that Jurgis and the others undergo are all real, but probably happened to a half-dozen different families that Mr. Sinclair talked to while researching this book.  Here, it’s all visited on one unlucky group of immigrants, and particularly Jurgis.  The rule of thumb is that if Jurgis gets a couple of pages where things are looking up even a little, the hammer is about to come down even harder, sometimes by Jurgis’ own ill-considered actions.

While Jurgis is initially a decent man, who tries to do the right thing, by the time everyone he ever loved is dead, he is ready to chuck conventional morality.  He sinks lower and lower, becoming in turns a mugger, a political operative, and worst of all, a scab worker.

Even when the novel ends on a hopeful note, as the Socialists gain votes (for the only way the world can be saved is to smash capitalism and adopt socialism), Jurgis himself is being carted off to prison for attacking the politically protected man who raped his wife.

Yes, there’s (off-camera) rape in the story, and child abuse (by Jurgis!) and a fair amount of other things that could be triggery, even if you can keep your lunch down during the slaughterhouse scenes.  The last few chapters are nigh unreadable for the opposite reason, as they devolve into sermons (at least one literal) on the benefits of socialism.

There’s early 20th Century ethnic prejudice, racism and sexism on display; it’s up to the reader to decide how much of it is a realistic depiction of the attitudes of the times, and how much Mr. Sinclair being unable to fully rid himself of unworthy cultural blinkers.

It’s also worth considering how things have changed since this book was written, and how little things have changed.  Too many pundits and plunderers would gladly have us go back to before “onerous” government food regulations, minimum wage laws and other protections for workers.  They think that of course they would be immune to the dangers of the Jungle, but in the end, the Jungle consumes everything within it.

Comic Strip Review: Jet Scott: Volume 1

Comic Strip Review: Jet Scott: Volume 1 written by Sheldon Stark, art by Jerry Robinson

It is the very near future, and science is advancing rapidly.  Sometimes it’s misused and disaster looms; then the U.S. government calls upon the Office of Scientifact and its top agent, Jet Scott.  Scott travels the world battling criminals and spies who misuse the latest technology.

Jet Scott

This was a 1953 comic strip that ran in the New York Herald Tribune and a handful of other papers.  At that point, they were shaking up their comics page with more modern strips, and liked the proposal by proven creators Sheldon Stark and Jerry Robinson (the latter of whom started out as one of the creators of the Batman comic books.   It ran only a couple of years, but is fondly remembered by those who saw it.

Jet Scott is a clean-cut fellow with a never-explained scar that has removed half his left eyebrow.  We get very little information on his background, beyond having gone to college, and having dated several attractive women.  The first strip has someone call Scott an “egghead” but he doesn’t seem to have a specialty, instead just a general education in modern science so that he can recognize the purpose of the weird technologies he runs into.

Most of the stories in this volume deal with the misuse of a specific technology, starting with “banthrax germs” in the first story.  The final story in the volume switches it up with ESP, as a man with precognition is suspected of stealing government secrets.  Generally the story is about discovering the scheme rather than the details of the technology.

The series used a “girl of the week” format, with both damsels in distress and cunning villainesses making plays for Jet Scott.  Sadly, even when the woman in question was supposed to be competent, any attempt by them to be useful/proactive in the story was generally useless.  The one big exception is “Mother” Makrae, a retired physics professor who’s invented a device that destroys buildings and is apparently extorting their owners.  She’s also the most memorable character in this volume, with her pet monkey and seemingly harmless exterior.

There’s also some period ethnic prejudice, with natives of certain countries being “superstitious,” while white Americans run businesses for their benefit.

The art ranges in style a bit, as Mr. Robinson got to stretch his skills as he got to be a full partner instead of just an employee.  The results aren’t always quite on target, but some scenes are drawn very well.

I recommend this book for Jerry Robinson fans, and comic strip collectors.

Book Review: Death on a Warm Wind

Book Review: Death on a Warm Wind by Douglas Warner (also published as The Final Death of Robert Colston)

When newspaper editor Michael Curtis witnesses a man being gunned down in front of the Evening Telegram office, he’s startled to realize that it’s Robert Colston, a man who’s already been declared dead twice.  Robert Colston, who has been missing since the disaster at Arminster five years ago, and even now is being sought by the police on unclear charges.

Death on a Warm Wind

This time, Colston is really dead.  But is it coincidence, or something more sinister?  Mr. Curtis allows another survivor of the disaster and a police detective to read the story his reporter originally wrote as a fifth-anniversary piece, one that could not be published.

We read it with them, learning of the teeming throngs of tourists in that pleasant beachside resort town.  We see a number of them in some detail, going about their lives as Mr. Colston does his best Jor-El impression, warning of an oncoming earthquake.  The authorities ignore him, and so do almost everyone else, until the earthquake actually happens, as predicted with uncanny accuracy.  In this crisis, the true nature of people becomes evident; a handsome, wealthy nobleman and sports hero is revealed as a sniveling coward, while a common thief selflessly sacrifices his life for others.

Back in the present day, a weather phenomenon that happened in Arminster occurs again, letting the survivors know that another earthquake is about to happen, but this time in the heart of London!  Can Curtis assemble the proof he needs to warn the public in time?

This 1968 novel is a cross between a disaster story and a thriller, as the protagonist races against time and other obstacles to try to save millions of lives.  The obvious first question is, if Colston, a formerly respected physicist, was able to predict earthquakes with such precision, why did no one listen?  And if his theory was rubbish, discredited by the worlds’ seismologists, why did it work at Arminster?

The characterization isn’t very deep, but is effective.  The author actually got me to shed a tear for a character named Groins Mackenzie!  And the villain of the piece is truly chilling in his motivation, which Curtis guesses wrong at until the last moment.

There’s also some nice moments of dawning horror; the first time the characters realize what the wind shift means; the final confrontation with the villain, and the realization of just what Colston’s “earthquake prediction theory” actually is.

Certain aspects of the plot do rely heavily on contrived coincidences, and the science is dodgy at best.  It would make a terrible movie due to front-loading the disaster scenes.

Of amusement to me was the almost-sex scene in which a young honeymoon couple discover that “abstinence only” education has left them at a complete loss as to how to proceed now they actually can.  (It ends tragically when the earthquake hits.)

A fun read, but don’t engage your brain too much.

Magazine Review: Detective Yarns April 1939

Magazine Review: Detective Yarns April 1939

This is a facsimile reprint by Adventure House of a pulp magazine.  Pulp magazines tended to stick to one genre, so you knew what you were getting from the beginning; in this case action-mystery.  Great literature was rare, but they really got the blood pumping.  And a dozen stories for a dime was good value for money.

Detective Yarns“The Devil Deals to G-Men” by Wyatt Blassingame takes us to the bayou country of Louisiana, with an FBI agent going undercover as a nature painter to investigate the disappearance of a game warden and death of a fellow G-man.  An oppressive atmosphere and suspicious locals make our hero’s job a lot harder.  Uses the cliche of the only woman on the island being somehow nicer than everyone else.

“Pin Game” by Wilbur S. Peacock has an Italian restaurant owner threatened by an insurance racket.  A rare case of a pinball game (at the time, these were gambling devices) used for good.  This story uses ethnic slurs.

“Death Hits the Jackpot” by H.M. Appel continues the gambling theme.  A small town has “nationalized” the local slot machine racket, much to the anger of the crook who was running it before.  But is he the one who rigged one of the machines to explode when it hit the jackpot?  Or is it the crazy street preacher?  The man whose son committed suicide over gambling losses?  Or a person you’d never suspect?  Something to consider when you visit your state-run casino.

“Double for Death” by Thad Kowalski concerns a red-headed tramp who sticks his nose in when he sees a damsel in distress.  But why does everyone seem to recognize him?  Very predictable twist.

“A Simple Case of Murder” by Harold Ward has a woman plotting to kill her husband; to be honest, forensics would have spotted the hole in her plan, even if she didn’t make a fatal mistake….

“Hot Paper” by Convict 12627 is a fact-based piece about fraudulent check-passing.  Of note is that the crooks take the anti-fraud measures previously introduced and use them to make the plan easier.  (Wouldn’t work nowadays because the outlay to set up the scam would be more than you could possibly earn before getting caught–credit cards are where the lucrative fraud is.)

“God’s Burning Fingers” by Joseph L. Chadwick has a great title.  Meteorologist Michael Vane, also known as “the Weather Detective” is involved with a case where a man has apparently been burned to death by Saint Elmo’s Fire.  This immediately rouses his suspicions.  The case is complicated by faulty eyewitness testimony and anti-Japanese racism.

“Bloodstains on White Lace” by “Undercover” Dix is another fact-based story, about the kidnapping, rape and murder or human trafficking of Irish lace-makers in Chicago around the turn of the Twentieth Century.  There’s some vivid imagery, but also brutal details of what had been done to a survivor (eliding the actual rape.)   At the time this piece was written, human trafficking was often called “white slavery” as though slavery was especially heinous when done to white people.  The writer also makes a point of specifying how pretty the kidnapped girls were.

“I’ve Got a City Full of Sin” by Louis Trimble features a detective whose sister has gone missing, and gets himself convicted of drunk driving (apparently a felony in California at the time) to infiltrate a criminal gang.  Our hero’s female sidekick is surprisingly competent and independent for the time period and genre.

“Suicide or Murder” by William Degenhard has a postal inspector investigating the supposed suicide of a man who’d just called him over to discuss something.  The explanation uses some dubious science.

“Never Kill a Copper!” by Paul Selonke is about a police officer being framed for the murder of a gangster, and his private eye friend looking into it.  Double crosses abound.  Of note, when this was written, two unrelated men could be roommates in an apartment and no one would think anything was odd.

“Ashes of Gold” by Mat Rand takes a sharp veer into noir territory.  The crime being investigated is an auto theft ring,   But the real plotline is about our protagonist’s best friend marrying a gorgeous ash-blonde woman and then inviting the protagonist to live with them in their small apartment.  The situation soon turns explosive.  It’s possibly the best story in the issue, but there’s a whopping dose of misogyny here that will not sit well with some readers.

As a facsimile, this reprint comes complete with the original ads, including a book on “married love” and a product for “Perio Relief Compound” which allegedly cured period delay in women.

Recommended for fans of pulp crime stories.

Anime Review: Argevollen

Anime Review: Argevollen

When Tokimune Susumu’s sister Reika is killed in a mysterious “training accident”, the boy decides to join the Arandas military as a Trail Krieger (basically walking tanks) pilot to work his way up the ranks in hope of eventually having enough access to learn the truth about her death.  He’s still very green when he is assigned to the 8th Independent Unit under Captain Ukyo Saimonji.  The unit is swiftly mobilized when the neighboring country of Ingelmia mounts an invasion, breaking through a previously impenetrable fortress.

Shirogane no Ishi Argevollen

On the way to the front, the 8th stumbles across a convoy that was ambushed by Ingelmian forces.  Tokimune is ordered not to reveal himself, but charges into battle when he sees there is a survivor of the convoy.  For his troubles, his mecha is shot to bits.  The survivor, rookie engineer Jamie Hazaford, decides to have Tokimune use the convoy’s cargo, a prototype war machine codenamed Argevollen.  Despite Tokimune’s inexperience, Argevollen is so advanced over the enemy mecha that he is able to defeat them easily.

Due to the emergency field activation, Argevollen now requires both Jamie and Tokimune to operate, and the shadowy Kybernes Corporation instructs their employee to stay with the 8th so the unit can be tested without having to rip out all the activation hardware.  Tokimune must learn to work with his machine, Jamie and his fellow soldiers if Arandas is not to go down in defeat.  But dark secrets abound, and Argevollen may be more connected to its pilot than was the intention.

Shirogane no Ishi Argevollen is a 24-episode anime series by the Xebec studio, and as of this writing, can be watched on the Crunchyroll website.

This series tends to come across as very generic for the mecha subgenre, especially in the first few episodes.  There are some notable features, however.  The first is that the series takes place in a world where aircraft were never invented.  This is never explained in a satisfactory manner, but does justify some of the military tactics used.  (The first episode has Ingelmia unveil Trail Kriegers that can jump over walls, the first time this has ever been done in history.)

While Argevollen is a “wonder weapon” it is made clear that it’s not a total game-breaker.  It’s like having one 21st Century tank in a World War Two setting, really effective when it works, but where are you going to get spare parts and a mechanic who can fix it?  Worse, when the production model is developed, Kybernes Corporation withdraws their software support.

The Ingelmian military are not the villains of the series, as such.  They’re mostly well-meaning soldiers obeying orders, told by their leader that they are “liberating” Arandas from its dictatorial king.  (“Just like they liberated my homeland,” notes one officer cynically.)  Even Richtofen, who becomes Tokimune’s self-appointed nemesis, is a pretty decent chap at first.  The real baddies are international arms dealers, a coalition of whom have been secretly exacerbating conflicts world-wide and convincing countries to start wars so they can sell weapons to both sides and test their latest creations.

Most of the characters are stock mecha anime types, for good or ill–this works least well with Jamie, who often comes across as much younger than she actually is, and best with Saimonji, whose stoic determination to spare the lives of his fellow soldiers leads him on a dark path, and an alliance of inconvenience.

The ending is rushed, with several plot threads brutally cut off, and a clear sequel hook; the series is selling poorly, I’m told, so we are unlikely to have that sequel.

Mecha fans are likely to find the show too generic for their tastes, with the fights somewhat downplayed.  Several episodes have little or no giant robot action at all!  But the more sober take and slower-paced episodes might appeal to viewers reluctant to watch more flashy mecha shows.  Parents should be advised that a couple of episodes have scenes where the characters are undressed (but tastefully blocked) and there is of course some bloody violence.  Probably not suitable below junior high.

Book Review: Conquest of Earth

Book Review: Conquest of Earth by Manly Banister

Note:  This review will contain SPOILERS for some major plot twists beyond a certain point.

Today Kor Danay is a Man.  It is the distant future, when Sol has become a red star, and Kor has completed nineteen years of intense mental and physical training to become a Scarlet Sage of the Brotherhood of Man.  Only six out of a class of one hundred have managed to attain the abilities of instantaneous teleportation over galactic distances, moving so fast time seems to stand still, reading minds, etc.  And Kor is the first initiate ever to survive taking the extra credit option of summoning stellar fire to the surface of a planet.

Conquest of Earth

But Kor and his four surviving classmates (one other tried the extra credit option) are bound by oath to conceal their Dragonball Z-level powers from the world.  For the Men are not the masters of Earth.  Earth, and all civilized worlds, are under the control of energy beings called the Trisz, who may or may not be multiple manifestations of a single mind.  The Trisz have been slowly draining Earth of its water, and under the guise of benevolent protection have turned humanity into a servant race.  If the Trisz knew just how powerful the Men really were, they would simply destroy Earth, which wouldn’t necessarily kill the Men, but would eliminate the People the Men want to free.

So as far as the rest of humanity knows, the Men are just philosopher-priests with maybe some holy miracles once in a while, though few people ever see even one.  Kor is shipped off to be the new head priest of No-Ka-Si, in the desert that was once known as Kansas.  There he must match wits with the treacherous Brother Set of the Blue Brethren (those students of the Brotherhood who washed out before the training became lethal) and the beautiful Lady Soma, who leads a double life.

The Trisz want Kor eliminated as their Prognosticator (a powerful computer that can predict the future but only in vague rhyming couplets) has indicated he might be a danger to them.  After some cat and mouse games, Kor makes the Trisz think he is dead and moves into the Organization of Men, the Brotherhood’s even more secret branch.  While investigating a young, untouched planet for possible colonization, Kor undergoes a shocking tragedy.

That tragedy begins a new phase in Kor’s life, that ends with another tragedy, one that gives him the information he needs to free the galaxy of the Trisz.

This 1957 novel appears to have first been a three-part magazine serial, judging by the abrupt changes between acts.  The middle section is the weakest, as it contains a lot of psychobabble philosophy while not much actually happens.  Brother Set is a fun character, but vanishes after the first part.

The idea that humans have untapped mental and physical powers that a chosen few can manifest with the proper training and mindset was a popular one in science fiction during the 1940s and ’50s, though few works carried it to this level.  The story plays with this a bit; Kor has difficulty empathizing with the humans he’s supposed to be saving due to the fact that he’s just better than them in every way.  And concealing his powers causes him issues; he could make himself invulnerable to heat and grime, but that would tip observers off that it was possible.

The romance angle is…lacking.  Apparently, a real Man just has to do whatever he was planning to do anyway, and women will be attracted to his Manliness; Kor never has to work at a relationship.  Lady Soma has some interesting potential, but tosses away her advantages to help Kor out.  After that, she’s just a sidekick who doesn’t do anything useful on page.

Once Kor really gets to unleash towards the end, the prose picks up as the author clearly enjoyed that bit.

Overall, a forgettable book with a few good scenes.

SPOILERS beyond this point.

There’s a phenomenon in fiction that comic book fans call “fridging” after a particularly notable example.  It consists of a female character dying or suffering for the sole reason of  motivating the male main character to do something, usually revenge.  In this situation, the story is not about the woman at all, but about the man’s deep pain and sorrow at losing her or having her relationship with him threatened.

Conquest of Earth is notable in that it does this twice, first by having Lady Soma randomly eaten by the Trisz, who are apparently completely unaware of who she is and why they might want to kill her.  Then the cavegirl Eldra, who is carrying Kor’s child for bonus rage points, is killed when the Trisz invade her planet.  Both women seem to exist solely to make emotional connections to Kor (doing all the relationship work themselves) so he’ll feel bad when they die.

But that’s not all!  Once rescued from Eldra’s planet, Kor realizes that he has been subconsciously manipulating probability to bring about a future in which he eliminates the Trisz.  In other words, he himself was responsible for the Trisz killing both his love interests to advance his main goal.  Kor doesn’t seem particularly upset by this revelation, either; now he can save the universe!

Book Review: Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything

Book Review: Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything by Steven D. Levitt & Stephen J. Dubner

Economics can be a deadly dull subject, at least when dominated by stuffed shirts talking about trade deficits, returns on annuities or fiat currency.  But the basics of economic theory can be used to learn useful or amusing things about the world.  With a large enough set of valid data, you can tease out fascinating conclusions, such as the answer to the question “is there cheating in professional sumo wrestling?”  (Probably, or some really amazing and highly consistent coincidences.)

Freakonomics

This book, as the front cover, back cover and several pages at the front remind us, was a New York Times bestseller and all-round phenomenon back in 2005.  (I wonder if there’s some sort of data available on whether having eleven pages of praise for the book before you even get to the title page is a good investment; I skipped right over it.)  It talks about such concepts as positive and negative incentives, regression analysis and information inequality as they relate to cheating schoolteachers, crime rates, baby names and other offbeat subjects.

Perhaps the most controversial subject covered is the notion that legalized abortion led to a massive drop in crime rates in the United States.  The evidence seems sound, but as the authors remind us, the data only shows us what is there, not what should be there.  The same results might have been achievable by other, less painful means.

There are some major changes to this edition of Freakonomics; the chapter  with the story of how the Klu Klux Klan was beaten back had to be heavily revised when one of the sources was revealed to have been exaggerating his role.  There are also several newspaper articles covering subjects that only got a passing mention in the main text, plus the one that got Mr. Dubner interested in covering Mr. Levitt’s research in the first place.  The advertised “Author Q & A” is rather flippant, and more of an advertisement for their next book, Super Freakonomics.

As a semi-scholarly book, there are footnotes, and an index, as well as a list of baby names you might want to consider.

I found this an interesting book with some thought-provoking insights, though some of the conclusions seem a bit iffy.  Recommended to just about everyone, but especially those who’d like to know more about the less stuffy side of economics.

Magazine Review: Marvel Science Fiction November 1951

Magazine Review: Marvel Science Fiction November 1951 edited by R.O. Erisman

Marvel Science Fiction started as a pulp magazine titled Marvel Science Stories that was published irregularly from 1938 to 1952.  The original publisher was the same one who eventually published Marvel Comics.  At the point this issue is from, the magazine was a digest-sized quarterly.  The line-up of authors is particularly strong.

Marvel Science Fiction

The cover by Hannes Bok isn’t related to any of the stories, but served as a caption contest.  You might want to enlarge the image to look at some of the details.

“Embroidery” by Ray Bradbury opens the issue.  Three elderly women concentrate on their embroidery as they wait for five o’clock.  This is not so much a science fiction story as an opportunity to use poetic metaphor.  As with many speculative stories of the time period, the threat of nuclear annihilation looms large over the text.

“‘Will You Walk a Little Faster'” by William Tenn continues the theme of existential dread with a tale that explains the origin of the legendary “little people.”  It seems they’re really aliens, and the rightful successors of humanity once we render ourselves extinct.  The problem is that the latest developments in mass destruction will render the planet uninhabitable if used in World War Three.  So the aliens are offering an even better weapon that will destroy humans without harming the environment, cynically counting on humans’ short-sighted self-interest to close the deal.

“The Dark Dimension” by William Morrison is another tale of humans being destroyed by their own greed, but on a…smaller scale.  Gerald Weldon, a self-educated scientist,  was cheated out of his discoveries twice, by two different men.  Now Weldon has discovered a way to communicate with, and possibly travel to, another dimension with different physical laws.  The beings on the other side of the portal seem anxious to have him visit, but having been burned twice, Weldon is hesitant.  Can he make full use of his discovery without being betrayed, or will he need to play on that betrayal to gain revenge?

“Shah Guido G.” by Isaac Asimov concerns a future United Nations that has become corrupted into a dictatorial regime that reigns from a new Atlantis.  It’s all a setup for a last-line bit of wordplay.  (The title might also be a pun, but if so it eludes me.)

“Chowhound” by Mack Reynolds takes place during an intergalactic war.  A Kraden has finally been taken alive, only for the Terrans to learn it’s no brighter than your average cow.  So the New Taos has been dispatched to the front to try to discover how such a creature could fly a starship, let alone wage a war.  It seems hopeless, especially when it appears an invisible spy has gotten aboard the ship.  Can Mart Bakr’s interest in exotic cuisine solve the mysteries?

“The Most Dangerous Love” by Philip Latham features the first rocket expedition to an extrastellar planet.  They’re aided by a young inventor who’s invented a new, more powerful scanner, able to focus on tiny areas at great distances.  Young Sidney Schofield has had no time for romance, having been so fixated on completing his invention.  It perhaps is no surprise then that when his scanner picks up a beautiful girl on the planet Del-S is headed for, he falls in love hard.  As the ship gets closer to the destination, it turns out the girl has a similar device, and soon the couple are in communication and looking forward to a life together.  Unfortunately, there is one small detail that makes them star-crossed.  There’s some Fifties sexism on display; the captain muses how grateful he is that there are no women aboard his ship, as they’d be constantly fighting and causing trouble.

“The Restless Tide” by Raymond Z. Gallun tackles the problem of immortality for a species like humans that evolved to handle a lifespan less than a century.  A husband is already tired of his comfortable Earth life, but his wife isn’t quite ready to go out to the space frontier again.  It’s ultimately something of an optimistic story; humans will always find something to do.

This is followed by a twenty-question science fiction trivia quiz.  Some of the answers are outdated.

Next up, a three-essay discussion of the question, “Should Population Be Controlled?”  The Yes position is taken by Fritz Leiber, in the form of a dialogue between two smug future people explaining the benefits.  Mr. Leiber correctly predicted the Pill (which came on the market in 1960) and the e-book.  On the other hand, he also talks about the concept of the stupid people outbreeding the intelligent people if steps aren’t taken, which is largely discredited.

No is handled by Arthur J. Burks, who argues that God intends for humanity to multiply, and Nature makes sure that we do.  Therefore, any attempt to artificially control population is doomed, so we shouldn’t even try.  Mr. Burks is also not a believer in “child-free” people.  Fletcher Pratt ties it up with Maybe, pointing out that no method of population control will be effective unless people go along with it, and known methods offend many religious people.

The letters column is the usual assortment of praise and gripes, with one correspondent (Francis J. Litz) complaining about the prevalence of half-naked women on covers of supposedly serious SF magazines.

“Mountains of the Mind” by Richard Matheson starts with a political scientist getting an electroencephalographic (EEG) reading from a doctor who’s researching geniuses.  When he sees his chart, however, he feels the need to seek out a mountain range that matches those peaks and valleys (ala Close Encounters of the Third Kind.)  And he feels the need to do so alone, ditching his fiancee from their planned vacation.  Eventually, he reaches the mountains and learns that he has been selected as one of the secret guardians of the world based on his compatible brainwaves.  He also learns that all the secret guardians must remain celibate, and he’s been manipulated since birth, which is why he’s kept putting off getting it on.  It’s difficult to get a read on the sexism level here–the story never specifically says that women can’t be secret guardians (only one other guardian appears or is named), but the only female character in the story is specifically not a genius, and works as a receptionist.

“Dover Spargill’s Ghastly Floater” by Jack Vance has the title character buy the Moon just a day before new transmutation technology makes Lunar real estate worthless.  Except that this was part of the plan all along.  His real motive was to terraform the Moon.  There’s some dodgy science to explain how the atmosphere isn’t going to evaporate off, and a businessman who fails at flexibility to the point I’m surprised he still has a company.

Judith Merrill and Harry Harrison provide the words and art respectively for a short piece on the Hydra Club, an invitation-only society for science fiction authors, publishers and interested people.  There were a lot of famous people in this club.

The back cover is a look at the first real-life space suit designed by the U.S. Air Force.

All in all, an enjoyable issue with lesser stories by good authors.

Book Review: The Partnership

Book Review: The Partnership by Pamela Katz

Disclaimer:  I received this book as a Goodreads giveaway on the premise that I would review it.  This copy was a bound galley, and changes have been made in the published edition (most notably, a proper index.)

The Partnership

The Weimar Republic, Germany after World War One and before the rise of the Nazis, was a time of great change.  The Kaiser had been dethroned, militarism had been discredited with large sections of the population, and social movement was greater than ever before.  But at the same time, the economy was dreadful, many in Germany felt they could have won the war if they weren’t “betrayed”, and political extremists rioted in the streets.  This was the crucible in which the partnership of playwright Berthold Brecht and composer Kurt Weill was born.

The two men, brilliant on their own, inspired each other to greatness in their two most famous collaborations, The Threepenny Opera and The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny, as well as a handful of lesser works.  This volume concentrates on the years of their partnership and how it was facilitated by three important women, actors Lotte Lenya and Helene Weigel, and writer Elisabeth Hauptmann.

The partnership only lasted a few years, with brief reprises necessitated by their joint ownership of their plays.  While there were many factors involved in the breakup (political differences, diverging artistic aims, Weill becoming independently successful in America), the author posits that the main reason the team splintered was that neither man could stand not being in charge.  They hadn’t quite realized this during their initial creative period, but as the political climate changed, and each had his own goals in mind, it became obvious.

Brecht comes across as a deeply unpleasant person, the type of man who has three children by three different women before he even had a proper career.   It feels like the biographer bends over backwards to excuse Brecht’s behavior towards his wives and mistresses (especially as he hypocritically expected them to be faithful to him.)  He seems to have believed that his superior creativity and artistic vision gave him license to run roughshod over anyone in his path.  It didn’t go over so well in America, where no one was impressed by his European reputation and he didn’t speak the language.

Weill, by contrast, though he had his flaws, seems to have known how to adapt his desire for creative control to the demands of Broadway, working with many excellent writers.

The book goes into great detail about the production of Threepenny; rehearsals were disastrous, entire parts had to be cut at the last minute, and it took several scenes in before the audience figured out which play they were watching.  The song “Mack the Knife” was written and scored in 24 hours as a simultaneous concession to and dig at the actor playing MacHeath, as he’d demanded a song about how awesome his character was.

There’s also quite a bit of focus on the women; Lenya and Weigel brought their husbands’ work to life on the stage, and after they became widows truly kept the legacies alive as well as coming into their own careers.  Hauptmann is a bit harder to read; as the translator who brought Brecht many of the works he freely adapted, and probably much more involved in his writing than was ever acknowledged by either of them, she’s a shadowy figure.  The Weimar Republic gave women new freedom, but it was still in relation to powerful or creative men.

The book skimps on the parts of Brecht and Weill’s careers that did not involve each other; you’ll need to read their separate biographies for those. The writing gets a bit pompous at times, and there’s some use of gratuitous mind-reading, along the lines of “Weill would have enjoyed the breezes.”

There are extensive end-notes with bits that didn’t fit into the main text, and a good bibliography.  I’d recommend this book to fans of Brecht, Weill and theater in general.

And if somehow you haven’t heard it before, here’s Lotte Lenya singing “Pirate Jenny” for the BBC.

Anime Review: I Can’t Understand What My Husband Is Saying

Anime Review: I Can’t Understand What My Husband Is Saying

Kaoru is a typical office worker in her mid-twenties who by chance meets, falls in love with, and marries Hajime, who is slightly younger than her and a dedicated otaku (A person who is a big fan of a particular esoteric subject and has poor social skills, much like an American nerd.)  She doesn’t really understand his hobbies, but they get along well.

I Can't Understand What My Husband Is Saying

This short slice-of-life anime series (three minutes an episode!) is based on a gag manga, Danna ga Nani o Itteiru ka Wakaranai Ken, by Cool-kyo Shinja (which I am pretty sure is a pen name.)  Typical episodes have them meeting each other’s relatives or friends, or doing simple activities like going out drinking.  Hajime often makes anime references, which makes this series less viable for those new to anime fandom.  The final episode has Hajime talking about how anime series end, and a change in their lives.

While the writing and animation are no great shakes, it’s a pleasant enough series, and the short length makes it a good palate cleanser between heavier shows.  The couple have an active sex life, off-camera but referred to a few times, so parents may not feel comfortable having little ones watch.  As noted above, Kaoru and Hajime drink, Kaoru sometimes to excess, and in some episodes Kaoru smokes.  (She’s given it up in the present day.)

As of this writing, you can find the series streaming free on Crunchyroll.

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