Book Review: Jefferson’s America by Julie M. Fenster
In 1803, many people in the fledgling United States expected a Louisiana War, as the Spanish had forbidden American shipping from passing down the Mississippi and through the port of New Orleans. That didn’t happen, as the Spanish were induced to yield the Louisiana Territory to their allies the French. France’s then-leader, Emperor Napoleon, said he would “never relinquish” the territory. But when European troubles drew his attention, the French offered to sell Louisiana to the Americans for a cool fifteen million dollars.
President Thomas Jefferson got the U.S. to pay the money, but other than the important ports of New Orleans and St. Louis, it wasn’t clear what all was included in the Louisiana Purchase. Someone had to be sent out posthaste to learn river routes through the territory, and apply some scientific curiosity to what might be found there. And so he chose the men of Jefferson.
This book is primarily about six men who led expeditions into the West, and the outcomes of those adventures. Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson’s personal secretary and a man who suffered bouts of depression. William Clark, younger brother of a Revolutionary War hero who had been cast aside by his country. William Dunbar, slaveholder and scientist. George Hunter, a chemist bent on making his fortune. Thomas Freeman, one of the surveyors that laid out Washington, D,C, And Zebulon Pike, an United States Army lieutenant who was intrepid beyond all reason.
It’s emphasized that other than Lewis, most of these men were not Jefferson’s first choices. Many better trained people simply didn’t want to risk their lives on perilous journeys, or couldn’t get away from previous commitments.
Of course, they are not the only people covered in this history text. We also meet the legendary Sacajawea, without whom Lewis & Clark might well not have made it past the Shoshone. Aaron Burr, who you may remember from that recent musical. Blackbird of the Omaha, whose dinner invitations you should find a way to politely refuse. And many others.
The story is primarily chronological, and skips back and forth between expeditions happening at the same time. But it’s not all “this happened, then that happened.” There is room for a certain amount of editorial opinion, and oddball moments. The book begins with a visit to New Orleans in 1820 by John James Audubon, who was later to gain fame painting birds. At the time, he was seeking wealthy patrons who needed their portraits done, to fund his passion. He met one of the famous Jeffersonian explorers, who alas had not aged well.
While the book is matter-of-fact about the issue of slavery, including some of the worst consequences of the system, it very carefully does not mention Jefferson’s own slaves, even when talking about his time at Monticello. I have to wonder if the author felt she’d have to put in another chapter just to explain President Jefferson’s complicated relationship with slavery and felt it best to avoid the issue.
The treatment of Native Americans is more directly dealt with, as they occupied parts of the lands the explorers were moving through. There’s quite a bit of politics involved, both between tribes, and their relationships with the various nations who wanted their goods or land. Zebulon Pike is mentioned as having noticed that the introduction of strong liquor as a trade good was distorting tribal life.
There are many direct quotes from letters and journals, and these are sourced in the extensive endnotes. There’s also a bibliography and index, several maps, and a thin section of illustrations in the center.
The age of Jeffersonian exploration lasted only a few years, but established the workability of scientific expeditions into the wilderness, rather than just cash and land grabs. It’s briefly mentioned that unlike the slapdash American expeditions, the Spanish science explorers under Carlos III were well-trained and equipped for their journeys–it’s just that they’d never gotten around to the Louisiana Territory. (I would like to read more about those expeditions, please.)
I found this book a pleasure to read, and recommend it for senior high students on up (there’s some frank talk about sex) who are interested in this period of history.
Disclaimer: I received this volume through Blogging for Books to facilitate this review. No other compensation was offered or requested.
Comic Book Review: Oni Press Starter Pack 2016 by various
While I spend many of my comics-related posts on this blog talking about the Big Two’s superhero comic books, there are a number of worthy small press comics companies that put out interesting material every year. Oni Press has put out an affordable collection of seven first issues from various series they’ve printed over their existence.
Leading off this trade paperback is The Sixth Gun by Cullen Bunn & Brian Hurtt. This horror-western about a collection of cursed firearms is as it happens something I have reviewed before. I won’t repeat myself here, but note that the series lasted eight collected volumes in its main storyline, with three extra graphic novels of spinoff stories. Pretty impressive!
Letter 44 by Charles Soule and Alberto Jiménez Alburquerque is science fiction. When incoming president Stephen Blades reads a letter left for him by his predecessor, he learns that many of the bizarre actions taken by Francis T. Carroll were based on information not shared with the American people.. It seems that there are aliens doing…something…in the asteroid belt. President Carroll felt it was most important for America to arm itself just in case the aliens are hostile, thus his warmongering activities on Earth that have made a mess of foreign policy while neglecting domestic issues that are coming to a head.
The United States also sent a secret manned space mission out to the location of the alien activity in an effort to learn more; they’re just now coming close to their destination. The astronauts have concealed certain information from their Earth-bound mission controllers…among other things, one of them is pregnant.
There are some pretty clear parallels to the Bush/Obama transition, with mentions of lies about weapons of mass destruction, and a white conservative president with a bad reputation on the economy and war being replaced with a darker-skinned liberal. But as the series progresses, the special circumstances lessen those similarities as President Blades tries a very different approach to the same situation President Carroll faced.
Meanwhile, the astronauts learn the truth behind the alien presence, and we learn the backstory of their mission.
The Bunker by Joshua Hale Fialkov & Joe Infunari starts with five recent college graduates going out to the woods to bury a time capsule. Except that they find themselves uncovering a bunker with four of their names on it. A bunker that contains items alleging to be from the post-apocalyptic future, including letters from their future selves.
It seems that by their actions, the quintet will bring about the near-extinction of the human race. But not doing so might create an even worse future. It’s not clear if the future selves are trying to create a time loop, or avert one.
This was a double-sized first issue, so a lot goes on. This does include nudity and on-page sex, as well as some nasty violence and strong language. The last page twist is foreshadowed, but still pretty shocking.
Stumptown by Greg Rucka and Justin Greenwood appears to be the first issue…of the third series. Private detective Dex Parios participates in an amateur soccer match (her team loses) before going to a professional game of footy with her brother Ansel and friend Mercury. It’s hometown Portland vs. Seattle, and autographs after! But afterwards, Dex and Ansel find a badly beaten (maybe dead) Mercury in the bushes. Is it hooliganism or a crime unrelated to sports?
Greg Rucka is well known for his crime comics, but the soccer elements took up most of the issue for a slow start.
Helheim by Cullen Bunn & Joëlle Jones takes place somewhere up North during the Sixth Century. A stockaded village is caught in a war between witches. A raiding party is chased by warriors of the witch Groa who soon become the undead. A man named Rikard keeps having visions of himself weeping tears of blood. When the village itself is breached, Rickard is beheaded, but that’s not the end of his participation in the war. Especially if his lover Bera has anything to say about it!
Rikard is relatively nice for a Norseman of the time, not happy about abandoning comrades or turning over loved ones to the enemy as a peace offering. His father is made of sterner stuff, but neither of them is fully prepared for what happens next.
Kaijumax by Xander Cannon is a considerable change of pace. The world has long been infested with monsters who ran rampant over the human civilizations. But now the humans have developed a way to give themselves giant superpowered forms (ala Ultraman) and have been capturing the kaiju they see as criminals, placing them on an island prison.
One of the latest inmates is Electrogor, who claims to have been just out looking for food for its children. Alas, the humans take poorly to kaiju eating their power supplies. Electrogor knows the humans are after its children, and it appeals to E68FE3 (“Hellmoth”), a monster that’s about to be released on a technicality, to help the kids out.
E68FE3 wants a return favor though, and the resulting altercation puts Electrogor in solitary confinement. It’s only then that a guard lets Electrogor know that the “technicality” Hellmoth was released on is that there are no living witnesses to its crimes. Especially the children.
Despite the cartoony art and many jokes, this series is a commentary on the American prison system and the abuses rampant within it. So Not For Children.
We finish with The Life After by Joshua Hale Fialkov & Gabo. Jude sleepwalks through his life, every day seeming exactly like every other day. Perhaps a little too much exactly like every other day–how many times can one woman drop her handkerchief on the bus? But today is different. Today, Jude picks up the handkerchief and tries to get it back to the woman.
It seems like the world is out to stop him, and it starts getting much weirder, but Jude eventually does catch up to the woman, and seemingly breaks her out of her routine as well. This disturbs secret watchers who say that no one has escaped in two thousand years.
Shortly thereafter, Jude meets Ernest Hemingway, who believes that everyone in their city is in fact a suicide, and this is the afterlife.
Some nifty use of panels and other art tricks, reminiscent of the Franco-Belgian style.
Content note: the woman’s flashback includes on-panel prostitution, gore and childbirth as well as suicide.
There’s a wide assortment of genres represented here, and this is a good choice to pick up if you’re unfamiliar with Oni Press and want to know which series you might like. Based on these first issues, I’m least impressed with The Bunker which skews even more cynical than I have a taste for.
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), 26th President of the United States of America, was big on nature. Specifically, he had a strong interest in natural history, and wanted to become/be known as a naturalist. This new biography focuses on that part of Roosevelt’s life, from his boyhood collection of stuffed birds to his African expedition for the Smithsonian Institute.
The author is himself a museum naturalist, so the narrative is perhaps a bit biased in favor of those who go out to collect specimens for natural history museums. Roosevelt considered himself a “hunter-naturalist”, someone who went out, observed nature carefully, then killed animals for scientific study. Sickly as a boy, with bad asthma, Teddy had to re-invent himself several times in his youth. He worked hard to build up his body and mind, engaging in outdoor activities and especially learning about animals in nature. His family was involved with the founding of the New York Museum of Natural History, which gave him a head start.
Interestingly, Roosevelt’s choice to go to Harvard seems to have doomed his ambition to become a full-time naturalist–according to this book, the college’s natural history program was dominated by laboratory work, not the field expeditions Teddy favored, and he met his first wife and realized that a naturalist’s pay wasn’t going to keep them in the style they were used to.
Instead, Roosevelt studied law and got into politics, with the results I mentioned in the first paragraph. While he certainly made some headway as President, including creating America’s first wildlife reserves and other environmentally friendly actions, Teddy chafed at not being able to hunt properly and the last months of his term were largely taken up with preparations for his African expedition.
There were many bits of knowledge in this book that I either had not known before or had long forgotten. Theodore Roosevelt’s poor vision meant that he was a bad shot, and often had to use far more bullets to bring down specimens than was ideal (and sometimes this meant he wound up killing more animals than he wanted!)
I found the literary feud between Roosevelt (and other scientifically-oriented naturalists) and the “sentimental” nature writers as exemplified by the Reverend William J. Long interesting. Dr. Long heavily anthropomorphized the animal behavior in his “non-fiction” stories, and often depicted events that were so unlikely that naturalists accused him of just making things up. (Side note: I looked up Dr. Long’s work and among other things he penned an entirely serious book on the subject of animal telepathy-not just non-verbal communication, telepathy.) In response, Dr. Long said that President Roosevelt could only touch the hearts of animals…with bullets.
The book stops with the aftermath of the successful African expedition-the less happy Amazon expedition does not get mentioned at all. As is common with these specialized biographies, any parts of Roosevelt’s life that did not have a bearing on natural history get short shrift, and the serious student should also read a more general biography to get a balanced picture.
A heavy emphasis is placed on how Roosevelt’s practical experience with hunting influenced his ideas on conservation. He could see with his own eyes how over-hunting was wiping out game animal populations, even within the span of a few years.
There’s a center section with black & white photos, and a few more scattered through the book. There are extensive end notes, a bibliography and index. Bright senior high students should be able to handle the material and language.
I enjoyed this book, and would recommend it to those interested in Theodore Roosevelt, natural history and the role of hunters in nature conservation.
Disclaimer: I received a copy of this book through Blogging for Books for the purposes of this review. No other compensation was requested or offered.
Magazine Review: The Saturday Evening Post 6/10/61 edited by Ben Hibbs
The Saturday Evening Post ran weekly from 1897-1963; after several format changes, it is now published six times a year. The Post was well known for its lavish illustrations and a combination of current event articles and short stories by popular writers. I got this issue from the month of my birth as an early birthday present. At the time, this magazine was printed in the broadsheet format, which is too large for my scanner–thus the truncated cover image showing only a part of Amos Spewell’s painting of tourists in Venice.
To entice potential customers at newsstands, the Post front-loaded the illustrations in spreads at the front of the magazine, and each of the articles and stories continued in the word-heavy back pages interspersed with a few cartoons. There were also many large illustrated advertisements–one for tampons is notable for not telling the reader what the product is, showing the product or saying what it’s used for exactly; if I didn’t know from the name of the product, I’d assume it’s some kind of skin cleanser or deodorant.
The Post was also known for having a staunchly conservative editorial stance, and this is on full display in an editorial expressing relief that leftist thought was vanishing from college campuses and conservatism was on the rise. “Of course, the battle isn’t over. Queer characters still appear on college campuses sponsored by ‘liberal’ groups.” Oh, if only they knew!
In the lively letters to the editor section, comments on an article about Bobby Darrin reveal changes in our pop culture, with people being shocked or pleased that he was willing to share personal opinions with the press even if they didn’t match the public’s desired stance. One letter writer asked why an article on “Presidents in Retirement” did not include FDR. The editor waggishly replies that the place that man retired to is not on the reporter’s regular beat. There’s also a couple of letters on segregation, responding negatively to a previous letter writer’s suggestion that since Southerners didn’t go to Northern states to demand segregation, Northerners should reciprocate about desegregation.
Let’s look at the contents.
“The White House Insiders” by Stewart Alsop is a look at President Kennedy’s political staffers (all men, all white-one had a black deputy) and how they helped him keep on top of what was happening in the country and the world. It goes into detail about JFK’s management style. The only top staff name most younger readers are likely to recognize is Arthur Schlesinger Jr., but Henry Kissinger is briefly mentioned as a second-stringer.
“Death of a Demon” by Rex Stout is part one of three of a Nero Wolfe mystery novella. The sedentary detective is briefly engaged by a woman who wants to show him the gun she will not use to shoot her husband. That’s…kind of suspicious, and when the husband turns up dead from a bullet wound, some questions are raised. Archie Goodwin, Wolfe’s leg man, is pretty sure the woman didn’t do it, but there are gaping holes in her story. It’s certainly an intriguing beginning! Happily, this story was included in Homicide Trinity by Rex Stout, which you can probably get through interlibrary loan.
“How the Doctors Saved Chicago’s Burned Children” by Alice Lake is a look at how St. Anne’s Hospital dealt with the victims of a fire at Our Lady of the Angels School in 1958. 95 people died immediately or in the aftermath, but this story concentrates on the survivors. Part of the credit for St. Anne’s quick and organized response goes to disaster preparedness they had undertaken after a fire some years before had caught the hospital unprepared for multiple victims. There are details of the treatment s used and updates on a couple of the survivors as of mid-1961. One of the treatments tried was using blood transfusions from recovering adult burn victims in the hope that their blood had antigens against “burn toxin.” (From the little I could find, research into this treatment has shown scant evidence of effectiveness.) For more on the fire, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_of_the_Angels_School_fire
“Handsome Samaritan” by Phyllis Duganne is a story about an airline pilot driving to vacation in Florida when he stops to help some stranded motorists. One of them is a very pretty woman, but he’s supposed to be meeting his fiancee. The pilot comes to realize he is much more compatible with this new woman who is more interested in who he is than who she can make him become. I found this story uncomfortable, and skimmed to the end.
“The Poacher” by Gene Coghlan, set in Depression-era North Dakota, has two brothers growing up on an isolated farm, and using traps to earn a little pocket money. One brother is laid up with a broken leg, and the protagonist takes advantage of this to claim that a fur animal was caught in one of his traps, rather than his brother’s. Presumably he learned a valuable lesson about life, but the conclusion pages are missing from my copy. Unfortunately, Mr. Coghlan doesn’t seem to have any books in print.
“The Case of the Comical Banker” by Harold H. Martin, profiles Mills Bee Lane, Jr., then president of the Citizens & Southern National Bank in Atlanta, Georgia. Known for a jovial style (unlike the stuffy conservatism usually associated with bankers of the period), his business acumen turned the C&S into the largest bank in the South. You may be more familiar with his nephew, Mills Bee Lane III, who became a famous boxing referee and TV judge. Lane, Jr. was credited in the article for jumpstarting tobacco farming in the Atlanta area when cotton took a dive in the market.
“The Meaning of the Eichmann Trial” by T.S. Matthews was published about halfway through the war crimes trial of Adolf Eichmann. (He was found guilty and hanged.) The article talks a lot about the trial conditions and the thoroughness of the Israeli court system. “Israel means to show the world that, in the British phrase, ‘justice is not only done but seen to have been done.” It also talks about the character of Israel as a country, and its people. The trial took place in a newly built suburb of Jerusalem, because at that time the Old City was in the hands of Jordan. This is a very moving article, and I think the best in the issue.
“Cop with Camera Eyes” by Thomas Walsh features a police detective with “photographic memory”, if he sees something, and it’s important to him at a later time, he will remember it clearly. It triggers when he notices the same person in the crowd three times during a date he’s having with his new neighbor. After safely returning his date home, The cop ambushes this tail. Surprise! It’s a federal agent! Seems the attractive foreign lady is suspected of being a Communist spy. Reluctantly, the cop agrees to keep an eye on the girl he has come to adore, but then she vanishes–and for the first time, the cop’s memory fails him at a critical moment. Can he crack the case before innocents are killed? It’s a pretty good story; I don’t know if it’s ever been reprinted, but Mr. Walsh’s Nightmare in Manhattan is considered a superior mystery novel and that you can find.
“Is Nature Getting Neurotic?” by Corey Ford is a humor piece about how over-complicated gardening and landscaping have become, requiring the homeowner to employ multiple specialists and expensive treatments just to keep the lawn alive.
“In the Best Interest of the Service” by Walt Grove takes us inside an Air Force base. A major must make a difficult decision because of the need for unit cohesiveness. A rescue chopper pilot is being accused of cowardice by one of his crew members. This is complicated by the officer being a Negro, and the crew member being a white man from the Deep South and the type of person who nowadays would be decrying “political correctness.” He doesn’t mean any harm by the N-word, he claims, so why shouldn’t he use it? But that does raise the stink of possible racism. Oh, and the chopper pilot is the major’s best friend on the base, so there may be the question of favoritism. Who will be getting transferred out? The resolution to the situation may be a little too convenient, but is satisfying, and inspires the major to take some steps in his personal life he’s put off too long. Mr. Grove wrote several action books about pilots, but it doesn’t appear any are currently in print.
“Comeback of the Giant Turtle” by Bern Keating is about efforts to increase the population of the green sea turtle (so called because of its distinctive green fat deposits inside the shell) in the Caribbean. Despite these and other preservation efforts, the green sea turtle remains an endangered species.
And finally, “The Big Swindle” by Clarence Budington Kelland is part 5 of 6. Twins Pet and Pete Du Chillon have finally come of age, and are attempting to make sense of what their guardian, Mortimer Norton, has done with the family company. It seems all sorts of shady shenanigans have been going on! The twins have some sort of scheme to expose the truth, involving a phony foreign prince and double-bluffing the man who runs security for Du Chillon Industries. This installment suffers from coming in the middle of the story, but I think it’s also a pretty bad story. Pet and Pete, as well as their beloved grandmother, are the sort of people who the author tries hard to convince us are very witty, but come off snide instead. The funniest bit for me was one of the supporting characters denying the possibility of a “twins threesome” in such a way as to make me think he’s thought waay too much about the topic (and also never mentioning sex because this is a family magazine.) Mr. Kelland is largely forgotten, but once was popular enough that Harlan Ellison called him out by name for lowering the tastes of the American public.
There’s also short poems (amusing but forgettable), jokes and cartoons.
This was a fun look back at a moment in time just before I was born. Copies of the Post in bad condition can be found relatively cheaply; issues in excellent condition, or with stories by top authors, will set you back considerably more money. Also, you can visit the website of the current magazine: http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/
Book Review: Shot in the Face: A Savage Journey to the Heart of Transmetropolitan edited by Chad Nevett
Disclaimer: I received this book through a Goodreads giveaway for the purpose of writing this review.
Transmetropolitan was a science fiction comic book series co-created by writer Warren Ellis and artist Darick Robertson that ran under the Helix and Vertigo imprints for sixty issues from 1997-2002. It details the journey of “gonzo journalist” Spider Jerusalem as he is forced to return to the sprawling City and becomes involved in presidential politics. The foul-mouthed and personally noxious Jerusalem has one redeeming quality, an absolute dedication to tell the truth as he sees it, and in the bizarre world of the future, that quality is vital.
This book is a collection of essays on various aspects of Transmetropolitan, from its publishing history to how it compares to other works by Mr. Ellis. It’s been in my To Be Read pile for a long time, since its publication in 2013, as I had meant to actually read Transmetropolitan first. But the volumes I needed were checked out at the library, and weeks went by and then I lost track of this book. Having it surface again, I decided to read it without finishing the original series.
The essays, for the most part, seem pretty solid. There’s one that compares and contrasts Spider Jerusalem with Hunter S. Thompson, who was a major inspiration for the character, and another on whether Jerusalem counts as a “super-hero” as well as detailed looks at the plot structure and interviews with the creators. Some of the essays could have used another proofreader pass, as I spotted spellchecker typos and sentence fragments.
The essay “Supporting Players: Women in Transmetropolitan” by Greg Burgas seemed a little off as he does not even mention two minor characters who show Spider Jerusalem’s less stellar qualities, mentioned in a couple of the other essays, and seemingly this essay would have been the place to go into depth about them.
Several pages from the comics are reproduced in black and white to illustrate points, and there are a few stills from a documentary about Ellis.
As one might expect, there’s a lot of rough language in here, mostly in quotes from the series, and discussions of edgy topics–consider this to have the same “mature readers” designation as the comics.
Primarily recommended to fans of Transmetropolitan or of Warren Ellis in general. If you haven’t read the series yet, you will be better served by doing that first.
Book Review: Slow Dancing Through Time by Gardner Dozois in collaboration with Jack Dann, Michael Swanwick, Susan Casper and/or Jack C Haldeman II.
The art of collaboration is an interesting one; two authors (rarely three) blending their skills to create a story neither could produce individually. Ideally, the reader should be able to see the fingerprints of the collaborators, but not the seams between them. Gardner Dozois wrote a number of fine collaborations in the 1970s and 80s, before taking on a full-time job as editor for Isaac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine.
This volume reprints fourteen of those stories, along with essays by the collaborators on the collaboration process, and afterwords for each story written by Mr. Dozois. (It also has a list of his other collaborations if you want to hunt them down.) The stories cover science fiction, fantasy and horror, with a couple of them on the edge between genres.
The first story is “Touring” (with Jack Dann & Michael Swanwick), in which Buddy Holly gets a chance to perform with Elvis Presley and Janis Joplin. It’s a Twilight Zone type story, although the language is saltier than Rod Serling would ever have been allowed to air. The book ends with “Down Among the Dead Men” (with Jack Dann), a chilling tale of a vampire trapped in a Nazi concentration camp. It was quite controversial at the time, and still packs a punch, despite where the horror genre went during the Nineties.
Standouts include “A Change in the Weather” (with Jack Dann), a bit of fluff about dinosaurs that hinges on the last line (and provided the endpaper illustration), “Time Bride” (with Jack Dann) about the use of time travel to emotionally abuse a girl (and with a downer ending as the cycle continues), and “The Clowns” (with Susan Casper & Jack Dann), another chiller featuring a little boy who sees clowns that no one else can.
Some of these stories may be hard to find elsewhere, such as “Snow Job” (wth Michael Swanwick.) This tale of a con artist and a time-traveling cocaine addict first appeared in High Times, which can be difficult to find back issues of.
Overall, the quality of the stories is good, but budding writers may find the essays on collaboration more useful to them. Recommended to speculative fiction fans.
Book Review: A Carnival of Buncombe by H.L. Mencken
The 2016 presidential election campaign has already begun, so let’s take a look at a book about elections of the past, shall we? H.L. Mencken (1880-1948) was a newspaperman, most famously on the Baltimore, Maryland Sun. For a number of years, he had a weekly opinion column published on Mondays. These 69 essays are focused primarily on presidential politics between 1920 and 1936.
That covers Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover and the first two elections of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mr. Mencken skewers them all, as well as other politicians and public figures of the time. He was famous for his barbs, and is eminently quotable. For example “…going into politics is as fatal to a gentleman as going into a bordello is fatal to a virgin.”
It’s interesting to see what has changed about politics since the first half of the Twentieth Century, and what has remained the same. It’s still amusing to watch a party’s primary candidates tear each other to shreds, then have to work together as best buddies once the party has an official nominee. On the other hand, the Republican and Democratic parties of the time are barely recognizable as the organizations they are now. (One can see the beginnings of the policy flips that lost the Dems the KKK vote.)
Mr. Mencken has a wide vocabulary and many useful words that may come in handy for your own writing. But be warned that he also uses some ethnic slurs that were common at the time. His views are progressive on some subjects, but highly reactionary on others, and he’s not afraid to speak his mind. Mr. Mencken is particularly hard on Methodists and Baptists, who he feels bullied the country into Prohibition (which Mencken was against.)
H.L. Mencken did support some politicians on an individual basis, but was quick to edit his own memory of their performance when they disappointed him. One also has to remember that he had a reputation as a curmudgeon to uphold.
To cover the major players, Warren G. Harding was a compromise candidate chosen for not having particularly strong views on anything; Calvin Coolidge was even less impressive (unless one takes the Jeffersonian dictum that “the government is best that governs least” in which case he is one of the greatest presidents.) Herbert Hoover was sold to America as exactly the kind of person who could fix a financial crisis should one pop up–he wasn’t. And FDR would have been better suited to the job of king.
Interesting historical perspective: Mr. Mencken writes several times about the perception that Hoover was too close to the British, something that didn’t get any play in the little I heard about him in school.
This collection was put together in the 1950s with the aid of political history scholar Malcolm Moos; it already needed an extensive “glossary” of names mentioned in the columns to remind people of who they’d been. Even with the glossary and index, some knowledge of early 20th Century American politics is vital to the reader getting anything but a few chuckles out of the text. My copy is in bad shape, as you can see, but the book has been reprinted a few times, so check your library or used book store.
Recommended to students of American politics in the first half of the 20th Century.
Book Review: The Return of George Washington 1783-1789 by Edward J. Larson
Disclaimer: I received this book through the Goodreads giveaway program on the premise that I would review it. My copy is an Advance Reader’s Edition, and changes will be made in the final version, including an index and more illustrations.
George Washington, “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen,” has had a great number of books written about him. However, most of them are general biographies of his entire life, or focus on his two most active periods, being Commander in Chief of the American revolutionary forces, and being the United States of America’s first president. This book covers the period between those two, when Washington was trying to retire to his day job as a farm owner and landlord.
As one might expect, Washington being away in the war for eight years had done Mount Vernon no favors, and there was much to set right. In addition, land that he owned in the west was either mismanaged or infested with squatters. For these personal reasons, and because he feared that the newly settled lands might pull away from the new republic unless there were good communication routes, Washington sponsored building a navigable waterway up the Potomac River.
Unfortunately for George, it quickly became apparent that the Articles of Confederation weren’t a sufficient framework to run the new country on. The Continental Congress couldn’t pay its bills, including the back pay of the Revolutionary Army, because the individual states didn’t want to give them any money. And the Articles didn’t allow them to force payment. (Kind of like how certain countries are perennially behind on their dues to the United Nations in the modern day.)
Bad money policy led to hyperinflation in some states, while too strict a money squeeze in Massachusetts led to Shays’ Rebellion when debtors could not get relief.
So a convention was called to fix some of the problems with the government–only to have it taken over by those who felt a wholesale overhaul and a new constitution was the only way to go forward. Washington was reluctantly called forward to chair the convention and give it the public gravitas it needed to be taken seriously.
The convention adopted a strict rule of secrecy as to its proceedings, and Mr. Washington took this very seriously, not writing any of the details in his diary or personal letters. As he seldom spoke on the floor, what was going through his head, and what backroom conversations Washington might have been having are mostly unknown to us.
Still, the convention came up with an innovative three-part federal government with checks and balances built in. Not everyone liked all the compromises made, but as a process for amendment was included, it was sent to the states, who mostly voted for ratification.
The problem for Washington at that point was that the new Constitution called for a strong central executive, the President. And there was just one man the Federalists trusted to be the first, Washington himself. So he spent the first Presidential campaign not running for office, but desperately trying to get on with his personal life before it was wrested away by his country again.
There’s an epilogue which briefly covers the Presidential years and Washington’s later life. There is a long endnotes section and several black and white illustrations.
Mind you, this story isn’t all good news. George Washington, like everyone else, had his flaws. The most pressing one is that he was a slaveowner, one of the biggest in Virginia. He seems to have been ambivalent on the subject of slavery, regretting its “necessity” but always finding it economically unfeasible to do without buying more slaves, and only making good on his promise to free his personal slaves in his will…with the actual freedom to be after Martha Washington’s death.
For more on one particular slave of the Washingtons, see this article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oney_Judge .
However, it seems likely that his slaveholding helped the Southern states accept the Constitution and the idea of a President more willingly than they otherwise would have. And Washington’s patriotism and sense of civic duty were strong influences on the early shape of the United States government.
As with other biographies that only cover a limited time span, students will want to supplement this volume with a more general biography. I’d recommend this book for high schoolers on up, as the subject matter is a bit dry for most younger readers’ tastes.
And to round out this post, let;s have a look at the Preamble to the United States Constitution.