Manga Review: Showa: A History of Japan 1939-1944

Manga Review: Showa: A History of Japan 1939-1944 by Shigeru Mizuki

This is the second volume of Shigeru Mizuki’s history manga (I have already reviewed the first and third.)  This volume covers most of what Americans call “World War Two” and the Japanese call “The Pacific War” as they had already been at war with China for years by the time the rest of the world went to armed conflict.

Showa: A History of Japan 1939-1944

As with the other volumes, the author covers not only national and world events, but his personal experiences.  Mr. Mizuki depicts himself as a dreamer who puts little effort into school or work, being expelled from both, but enthusiastically pursues whatever knowledge catches his interest.  When he is finally drafted, Mizuki is also an incompetent soldier (much like the American Sad Sack) who blows his chance at a relatively cushy spot as a bugler and instead is shipped out to Papua New Guinea.  (His gentle nature does, however, allow him to make friends with the natives.)

Having bit by bit become a military dictatorship, and with the Soviet Union looming on its doorstep, the government of Japan felt comfortable allying itself with Nazi Germany (and then Fascist Italy) against their common foe.  Japan was then confused when Germany made a non-aggression pact with Russia (and they followed suit) only to invade the Soviet Union a year or so later.  Meanwhile, the Japanese military continued trying to liberate/take over their neighbors in the Greater East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere.

Japan was also beginning to run out of vital war supplies like steel and oil, and their biggest supplier, the United States, was turning increasingly hostile.  The U.S. government, led by president Franklin D. Roosevelt, cut off the supplies.  Japanese ambassadors did try to negotiate, but the American idea of compromise was “give up all territories you seized in war, and we’ll sell you just enough to keep the lights on at home.”  Understandably, the Japanese military government found that offer insulting at best.

And so Pearl Harbor and the subsequent Japanese attacks across the Pacific territories of the Allies.  At first, the Japanese scored victory after victory.  Given the nature of some of the colonial governments, in certain places they were even greeted as liberators.  (Though most soon learned that the Japanese had no intention of allowing them true independence.)  However, this had two bad side effects.  First, many in the Japanese military began suffering from “victory disease”, believing that the Japanese forces were invincible and the war could be won easily.  Second, instead of demoralizing the Americans into giving up as was the plan, the attacks instead stung the complacent public into patriotic fervor and willingness to do whatever it took to beat the Axis.

As the war wore on, the United States’ superior production capability, advanced technology and ability to read Japanese codes turned the tide.  The Japanese government, led by Hideki Tojo, decided to just flat out lie to their citizens by never admitting setbacks or defeats.  Increasing rationing and crackdowns on free speech told the Japanese public that things were going badly, but they had no idea how dire the war had become.

The Japanese army is depicted as brutal, with soldiers suffering constant physical abuse from their superiors (who were physically abused by their superiors and so on.)  In this volume, young Private Shigeru gets the worst of this treatment.  Our protagonist misses out on comfort women only by virtue of being too far back in the line when the brothel closes to evacuate.  There’s also some body function humor.

The Bataan Death March is depicted as less a deliberate atrocity than the result of horrific failure of logistical planning.  And Shigeru’s brother off-handedly does something that will later get him tried as a war criminal.

There are footnotes explaining some military terms (some so basic as to seem silly, but perhaps the equivalent Japanese terms might be unfamiliar to young readers) and extensive end notes.

The volume ends with the mission that will eventually lead to Shigeru Mizuki losing an arm.

As with the other volumes, Mr. Mizuki’s art varies between his usual scratchy,cartoony style and more “realistic” depictions.  Some of the war scenes make it clear he could have done straight-up war comics if he’d so chosen.

Highly recommended to those interested in learning about World War Two from the Japanese point of view, and fans of Shigeru Mizuki’s other work.

And here’s a song about Rabaul, the airfield Shigeru was stationed near.

Book Review: In the Wet

Book Review: In the Wet by Nevil Shute

This is rather an odd book by the author of On the Beach and A Town Like Alice.  It starts as the story of Roger Hargreaves, an aging Anglican priest in Northern Australia in the 1950s.  In the course of his parish duties,  Father Hargreaves meets a colorful local character, an old drunk named Frankie.   Frankie may have some sort of precognitive abilities, or maybe he just got a lucky guess.  Still, there’s more to Frankie than meets the eye.

In the Wet

During the rainy season, (as the locals call it, “in the wet”,) Hargreaves receives word that Frankie is dying.  Along with a local medical woman, he hurries to the remote cabin Frankie is staying in.   They lose their medical supplies in the floods, and the lamp fuel is almost gone.  There’s not much to be done for Frankie but allow him to smoke opium to dull the pain.   To distract Frankie, Hargreaves asks the dying man to tell the priest about himself.

But the story Frankie tells is of Wing Commander David Anderson, an Australian test pilot who is asked to become a member of the Queen’s Flight (kind of like Air Force One for us Yanks.)  As the story continues, it becomes clear that Anderson lives in the 1980s, a time of crisis for the Commonwealth.

After this paragraph, I’ll be going into SPOILER territory, and also some racially charged language.  For those who don’t want to see that, I’ll say that this is an interesting book, but On the Beach was better.  Some very nice sketches of North Australian life in the 1950s at the beginning and end, though, and the aviation scenes are excellent.

SPOILER WARNING

1980s Britain is not, in many ways, like the one in our timeline.   For starters, there’s still food rationing.   Rosemary Long, our hero’s love interest, has a good job at Buckingham Palace and can afford her own good sized sailboat, but has never seen an intact pineapple before, let alone had enough meat to worry that it might spoil.  (In real life,  rationing officially ended in 1954, with many items being derationed well before that.

Also, Britain is largely Socialist, with Labour having been in power almost uninterrupted for the last thirty years.  (Evidently, Mr. Shute did not have confidence in Winston Churchill’s ability to hold onto the Prime Minister job.  In real life, he was able to swing the voting to the Conservative party for quite some time.)  This has resulted in the Prime Minister, Iorweth Jones being a barely disguised Communist, (Communism having gone out of favor after “the Russian war”) with a class warfare mentality.  Also, the Secretary of State for Air is so out of touch with the state of aeroplane technology that he is unaware planes have things called “radios” now.

One thing Mr. Shute did get right was that Queen Elizabeth II is still on the throne, with Charles as the Prince of Wales.  Charles is married and has two sons.  Well, he does on page 111.   A daughter pops up as well on page 181.

We don’t get much information about the Russian war; it was a few years ago, Commander Anderson spent most of it in the Philippines, it evidently did not go nuclear, and there’s no mention whatsoever of the Soviet Union.  As mentioned above, the end of the war discredited Communism as a viable government style.

Britain is also undergoing a population crash, due to heavy emigration (in our timeline they mostly had immigration from the former colonies and Commonwealth.)   Things have gotten bad enough that the government nationalized housing after the 1970 crash and hasn’t given it back since.  Rosemary has never seen a new house being built, to her memory.

Meanwhile, Australia’s been doing great, thanks to the new multiple vote system.   Every adult gets one basic vote.  if you get higher education, you get a second vote (Anderson got his for officer school.)  Working outside the country for two years gets you the foreign travel vote (Anderson admits this is pretty much a racket so military veterans get an extra say.)  Getting married, staying married and spawning two children who you raise to at least fourteen gets you a family vote.  (Divorce, widowry or your kids dying or disappearing means starting all over.)

There’s also a business vote for anyone with an earned income over a certain amount (and it’s substantially high) and a religious vote for anyone holding an office in an approved Christian church.  That last one would never fly in America!  Finally, there’s the Queen’s Favour vote which you get in much the same way you would a knighthood.  Thus a truly dedicated person can have up to seven votes; somehow this has led to Australia getting a better class of politicians.

By the end of the book, England is looking to install the same voting system.  Notably, England had had a similar thing called plural voting up until 1948 in real life, when it was reformed for a one person one vote system.  Instead of multiple voting, real life Australia went with “preference voting” instead, where you rank candidates in order of how much you like them.

In other political oddness, the Queen seems much more involved with ruling the Commonwealth than the largely figurehead role she had in the real 1980s.  She even moves the Royals to Australia, and appoints a Governor General for England as it’s clear Parliament can’t handle the job.

Oh, and what will be truly horrific to some of you, rock and roll never caught on, and ballroom dancing with live orchestras is still the thing.

And then there’s the racism weirdness.  Mr. Shute was against racism, especially Southern United States style racism, but it’s expressed oddly here.  Commander Anderson is mixed race, being one-quarter Aborigine, and apparently is light-skinned and fine-featured enough that most people assume he just has a tan.  He goes by the nickname “Nigger,” and insists all his friends call him that.

You can sort of see that, as a way of “reclaiming the word” and apparently Commander Anderson’s worried that people will think he’s trying to “pass” if he doesn’t bring up his ancestry directly.  But it’s still very jarring.  Especially when he uses the phrase “nigger in the woodpile” unironically.  It’s clear that most of the characters consider his deeds more important than his ethnicity, and indeed, he’s the only one to ever bring it up.

The sections set in the 1950s have more obvious casual racism.  There’s a bit of author blindness to sexism; the Queen rules but all the other speaking women in the 1980s are secretaries, telephone girls,  stewardesses and maids.  Rosemary majored in history and paid special attention to the suffragette movement, but otherwise seems content with a 1950s style romantic relationship.

If you’ve read the book and have some comments, by all means let me know.

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